The mega-asteroid that smashed into Earth, launching debris that later became the moon, happened about 95 million years after the birth of the solar system, research in this week's issue of the journal Nature showed.
The finding disputes, with a 99.9 percent degree of accuracy, some previous estimates that the moon-forming impact occurred as early as 30 million to 40 million years after the solar system's formation, some 4.58 billion years ago.
Image: A penumbral eclipse of the moon in the night sky in Manila ROMEO RANOCO / REUTERS FILE
Researchers using a new way to calculate the birthday of the moon conclude it formed later than some previous estimates.
The new study is based on 259 computer simulations of how the solar system evolved from a primordial disk of planetary embryos swirling around the sun. The programs simulate the crashes and mergers of the small bodies until they meld into the rocky planets that exist today.
By that geologic clock, Earth's last big chuck came from a Mars-sized body that hit about 95 million years after the solar system's formation, the study showed.
"We think that the thing that hit Earth and ended up forming the moon, the lion's share of it stayed on Earth. A small fraction of its mass and some material from Earth was pushed off into space to form the moon," astronomer John Chambers, with the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, said in an interview.
"That was probably the last big event," he added.
The previous assessment was based on measuring the naturally occurring radioactive decay of telltale atoms inside lunar rocks. The same process, however, also led to findings that the impact happened between 50 million and 100 million years after the solar system's formation.
"Our new method … is independent of radiometric techniques and so we break through the controversy," lead researcher Seth Jacobson, with Cote d'Azur Observatory in Nice, France, wrote in an email.
— Irene Klotz, Reuters
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